SHSS Citation Style Sheet

SHSS follows an in-text parenthetical citation style both for the main body of the manuscript submitted as well as the Endnotes that follow the main body. The parenthetical citation should be placed immediately after the quoted material. A detailed Reference List in a descending alphabetical order (following the Last Letter of the Last lame of the Author is to be provided at the end of the manuscript. The Reference Section should have the publication details of only those works that are mentioned within the manuscript.

A. Citing and Referencing Source Materials

  1. In-text citation for a book and the style of providing the details of the work in the Reference Section at the end of the manuscript:

  1. Single author

(<Author’s Last Name>, <Year of publication of the work cited>: <page number(s) where he quoted materials appear in the text>)

(Miri, 1976: 12) or (Miri, 1976: 18-19)

  1. Multiple authors but not more than three authors

(<1st author’s last Name>, <2nd Author last Name>, & <3rd author last name>, <Year of publication of the work cited>: <page number(s) where the quoted materials appear in the text>)

(Solomon & Higgins, 1996: 12) or (Solomon & Higgins, 1996: 18-19)

  1. More than three authors

(<Last name of the 1st author> <et al.,> <Year of publication of the work cited>: <page number(s) where the quoted materials appear in the text>)

(Mishra et al., 2004: 16) or (Mishra et al., 2004: 16-17)

The details of the work in the Reference List should be listed as:

Miri, Sujata. 1976. Suffering. Shimla: IIAS.

Solomon C. Robert, Higgins M. Kathleen. 1996. A Short History of Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.

<Author’s Last Name>, < Author’s First Name>. <Year of publication of the work cited>. <Title of the Book>. <Place of Publication>: <Publication House>.

 

2. In-text citation for an Article in a Journal

The year of publication of the Anthology or the Year of the published volume of the Journal is to be mentioned.

(Ganeri, 1996: 119)

The details of the work in the Reference List should be listed as:

Ganeri, Jonardon. 1996. “Numbers as Properties of Objects: Frege and the Nyāya.” Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences. III(2): 111-121.

<Author’s Last Name>, < Author’s First Name>. <Year of publication of the Issue of the Journal where the cited work is published>. <“Name of the Article.”> <Name of the Journal>. <Volume Number (Issue Number)>: <Pages of the cited Article>.

 

3. In-text citation for an Article in an Edited Volume

(Hutnyk, 2014: 181)

The details of the work in the Reference List should be listed as:

Hutnyk, John. 2014. “NDTV 24X7 Remix: Mohammad Afzal Guru Frame by Frame.” in Channeling Cultures: Television Studies from India, edited by Biswarup Sen and Abhijit Roy. New Delhi: Oxford University Press and IIAS)

<Author’s Last Name>, < Author’s First Name>. <Year of publication of the Volume where the cited work is published>. <“Name of the Article.”> in <Title of the Volume,> edited by <Name of the editors.> <Place of Publication>: <Publication House/s>.

 

4. Secondary in-text citations

Secondary in-text citations should be marked by “quoted in” and the in-text citation should be provided for the work which the author has actually referred.

For instance;

Commenting upon the impact of Christian Missionaries upon the traditional Naga ceremonies, Alemchiba observes that fact that ‘religion played a strong part in every Naga ceremony and as that religion was not Christianity, they (the Christian missionaries) felt that every ceremony should be abolished’ (quoted in Mishra, 2013: 26).

In the Reference List, the details of the Work by Mishra is to be provided and not of Alemchiba and the details of the work in the Reference List should be listed as;

Mishra, Udayon. [2000] 2013. The Periphery Strikes Back: Challenges to the Nation-State in Assam and Nagaland. Shimla: IIAS.

 

5. Citing and Referencing Reviews

While citing a book or an article review, the reviewer is to be treated as an author and the review like an article. The in-text parenthetical citation should appear as;

(Lal, 2009: 44)

The referencing of the work is to follow the following format;

Lal, Malashri. 2009. Review of “Representations of a Culture in Indian English Poetry” by Mita Biswas. Summerhill: IIAS Review. XV(2):43-44.

Note:

If the Review Article has a title, then the review is to be treated as an Article rather than a review while referencing it in the Reference Section.
 

6. Referencing works that are translated

For translated works, the author’s name should be provided first and the name of the translator should follow the title of the work.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. 2000. The Birth of Tragedy. Translated by Douglas Smith. New York: Oxford University Press.

Or, if a particular text/article within the corpus of a larger translation is to be cited then;

Plato. [1903] 1961. “Phaedo”. Translated by Benjamin Jowett in The Four Socratic Dialogues of Plato. London: Clarendon Press.
 

7. Citing Journal Articles that have been accessed through online portals

If the cited Article has been accessed online through online portals like Jstor, Springer, Muse etc., treat it similar as you would treat a print version and follow the citation and referencing style listed in 2 above. However, please include the DOI or the date of access while listing it in the reference list.

For instance,

Joseph, Sarah. 2002. “Society vs State? Civil Society, Political Society and Non-Party Political Process in India.” Economic and Political Weekly. 37(4): 299-305. Accessed on 11/7/2014.

Or

Best, Shaun. 2007. “The Social Construction of Pain: An Evaluation.” Disability & Society. 22(2): 161-171. DOI: 10.1080/09687590601141592

Note:

  1. In-text citation simply provides the page number/s, without being prefixed by p. or pp.
  2. All proper names are to be romanized even if they are in languages other than English.

  3. Honorific titles like, Sir, Swamiji, Guruji, Reverend, Dr, Professor, Mr, Ms, etc., are not used before the name of a person.

  4. Title of the Article is within double quotation marks followed by a period mark, and the name of the Journal or the Book title is to be italicized.

  5. All words of a title of a Book or an Article are to begin with Upper case letters except articles and prepositions. If, however, the Articles begin with an article or a preposition, it too is to be in Upper case letter.

  6. In case of Journal Articles, the Volume number is immediately followed by the Issue number in brackets followed by the page numbers through which the article runs. In case the Journal does not have an Issue Number, then the Volume number is immediately followed by the page numbers. For example, ‘III(2): 111-121’ or ‘II: 187-199’. Kindly note that the SHSS does not subscribe to ‘111-21’ or ‘102-7’ as pages indicating style.

  7. In case the author and/ or the year of the work cited is/are mentioned in the body of the text itself then the in-text citation should exclude the mentioned details.

  8. If there is a need to cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, a semi-colon is to be used between the citations.

  9. If two authors whose works have been cited bear the same last name, then the in-text citation should be followed by the initial of the authors’ first names as well. In case the initials too are shared by the authors then the full names of the authors are to be mentioned.

  10. For many Publishing Houses, there are multiple places of Publication listed. In such cases, provide the first place mentioned in the Copyright page of the work cited. In case the place of publication or the year of publication is not known use ‘n.p.’ and ‘n.d.’ in place of the missing data respectively in the referencing format.

  11. In case of a source that has no author as such, like dictionaries, or in cases of newspaper or magzine Reports and Articles, the bibliography entry in the reference list should begin with the title and treat the title for the purposes of alphabetical ordering rather than the author.

  12. In case the work being cited is written under a pseudonym, for all purposes of referencing, the pseudonym is to be treated as the name of author of the work. However, if the real name of the author is now a matter of knowledge and is uncontroversial, the real name of the author should follow the pseudonym in square brackets in the reference section.

  13. Published Materials from a Conference Proceedings is to be cited using the same citation procedure that is used for a chapter in an Anthology.

  14. If the book forms a part of a series, then the series title is omitted.

  15. In case of a work that has multiple editions, the reference to the year of publication of the first edition is to be provided in square brackets followed by the year of publication of the edition being cited. For instance;

Mishra, Udayon. [2000] 2013. The Periphery Strikes Back: Challenges to the Nation-State in Assam and Nagaland. Shimla: IIAS.
However, it is to be noted that this is only to be done for editions and not reprints. In case of Reprints, only the year of the reprint being cited is required.
 


B. Citing and Referencing other forms of Source Materials

1. Citing and Referencing Newspaper Article/Report

The name of the author and the name the newspaper should be placed within the main body of the text. If the report does not mention the author, the name of the newspaper must be placed within the main body of the text. The in-text citation should carry the date of the article and the page number.

For instance,

Writing on the not much seen softer side of Australians, Sundaresan in his article in the national daily The Indian Express writes, ‘…Not to say that they are rude. They’re not. They’re a courteous lot… But Down Under, they don’t believe in giving a quarter, not that they expect one from you.’ (4/12/2014: 18).

Or

A report in The Indian Express highlights just how dangerous the mining profession in India truly is (4/12/2014: 2)

The details of the work in the Reference List should be listed as:

“Just for Once, Aussies Show They Have a Softer Side too.” Sundaresan Bharat, The Indian Express, 4/12/2014: 18.

<“Name of the Article.”> <Name of the Author,> <Name of the Newspaper,> <dd/mm/yyyy>:<page/s.>

Or as follows, if the author of the Article or the Report is not provided,

“One Death Every Third Day in India’s Most Dangerous Job.” The Indian Express, 4/12/2014: 2.

<“Name of the Article.”> <Name of the Newspaper,> <dd/mm/yyyy>:<page/s.>

Note:

In case the Article or the Report has been accessed online, the date of access along with the URL to the Article/Report page/s must be provided along with the other details.

For instance, in case the second article cited above is accessed online, the details of the work in the Reference List should be listed as

“One Death Every Third Day in India’s Most Dangerous Job.” The Indian Express, 4/12/2014: 2. Accessed on 6/12/2014: < http://epaper.indianexpress.com/389184/Chandigarh/05-December-2014#page/...

<“Name of the Article.”> <Name of the Newspaper,> <dd/mm/yyyy>:<page/s.> <Accessed on dd/mm/yyyy>: <<URL>>

 

2. Citing and Referencing Articles/ Reports in Magazines

The name of the author and the name the magazine should be placed within the main body of the text. If the Article/Report does not mention the author, the name of the magazine must be placed within the main body of the text. The in-text citation should carry the page number.

If the magazine has a Volume number and/or an Issue number, they should be mentioned following the standard journal citation style in the reference section. If not, then the dates should be mentioned.

“Sorrow on the Mountain.” Chip Brown, National Geographic, November 2014: 57-91.

<“Name of the Article.”> <Name of the Author,> <Name of the Magazine,> <Date as it appears on the magazine cover>:<page/s.>

Or

“Russia’s Wounded Economy.” The Economist. November 22nd-28th November 2014 [413(8914)]: 11.

<“Name of the Article.”> <Name of the Magazine,> <Date as it appears on the magazine cover [Volume number(Issue number)]>:<page/s.>

Note:

  • In case the Article or the Report has been accessed online, the date of access along with the URL to the Article/Report page/s must be provided after the other details.

<“Name of the Article.”> <Name of the Author,> <Name of the Magazine,> <Date as it appears on the magazine cover>:<page/s.> <Accessed on dd/mm/yyyy>: <<URL>>
 

3. Citing and Referencing Dissertations

All dissertations are to be treated as books for in-text parenthetical citations. However, while referencing it, the following style is to be followed.

Mollier, T. Arenla. “Gandhi’s Ethical System and World Religions: A Comparative Study.” (Ph.D. Dissertation) University of Pune, 2009.

<Author’s Last Name>, < Author’s First Name.> <“Title of the Dissertation.”> <(Ph.D./M.A./M.Phil. Dissertation)> <Institute to which the Dissertation is Submitted>,<Year as it appears on the Dissertation.>

If the dissertation has been accessed online, the date of access along with the URL to the dissertation must be provided after the above reference using the format

<Accessed on dd/mm/yyyy>: <<URL>>
 

4. Citing and Referencing Cartoons/Paintings/Photographs or other works of Art.

a. If the work of art is published elsewhere, then it should be treated as a secondary source citation and the in-text citations should be marked by “in” and the in-text citation should be provided for the work which the author has actually referred. The title of the work of art, if it has one, should feature within the main body of the text and the work of art used in the text should be labelled as “Pic.”, with the appropriate picture number given followed by the title of the work of art.

For instance,

Though the yab-yum (father-mother) embrace is a well-known mode of representing the Buddha and the Bodhisattvas, it was largely employed to represent Heruka as Chakra-Samvara in the eighteenth century Thang-kas.

Skorupski
Pic. 1. (In, Skorupski, 1987: 53)

In the Reference List, the details of the work by Skorupski, is to be provided following the standard book citation style, followed by the label number of the picture in parenthesis.

Skorupski, Tadeusz. 1987. “Tibet.” in Mythology: An illustrated Encyclopedia edited by Richard Cavendish. London: Black Cat. (Pic. 1.)

Or

The wall paintings in the Ajanta Cave temples reflect a different composition altogether, especially the painting found on the wall of Cave 1, where the imposition of a painting over a pre-existing one is clear.Griffiths

 

 

Pic. 1. (In, Griffiths, 1983)

In the Reference List, the details of the work by Griffiths, is to be provided following the standard book citation style, followed by the label number of the picture in parenthesis.

Griffiths, John. 1983. The Paintings in the Buddhist Cave-Temples of Ajanta. Plate 13. Delhi: Caxton Publications. (Pic. 1.)

b. If the work of art used is taken from an online source, provide the date of access and the ULR.

Hobbes
 

 

Pic 1. Calvin and Hobbes

In the In the Reference List, the details of the work of art should be in the following format:

“Calvin and Hobbes.” Bill Watterson. (Pic. 1.) Accessed on 11/12/2014: <http://www.gocomics.com/calvinandhobbes/2014/12/11>

c. If a photograph of the work of art used is then the source of the photograph along with the date of the shot taken should be provided in the details in the reference list.

For instance,

“Dancing Girl.” National Museum: New Delhi. (Photograph: Author, 12/12/2012) (Pic. 2.)

Or

“A Shaman in Trance.” Darjeeling Bonpo Festival: The Mall, Darjeeling. (Photograph: Author, 12/08/2003) (Pic. 3.)

d. For pictures of Paintings and Sculptures used the reference style is as follows;

<“Title of the Work of Art.”> <Name of the Artist.> <Type of work of Art-Painting/ Drawing/ Sculpture/ Photograph> <Year/Period of the Work of Art>: <The source of the Work of Art like the Museum, Archive, Place, the URL, or the details of the Secondary Source.> <(Pic. Appropriate picture number as it appears in the main body of the text.>

Note:

  • The above citation and referencing style applies to all diagrams, tables and charts used in the text.

 

5. Citing and Referencing Maps

The map should be provided an appropriate label as “Fig.”, and the title, if it has one, should be retained.

For instance,

“Indian Empire: Major Administrative Divisions, 1947.” Map, in A Historical Atlas of South Asia, edited by Joseph E. Schwartzberg. Plate VIII.D. 1. Page 76. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1978. (Fig. 1.)

Or

“Malva.” Map, in Maps of Mugal India, edited by Susan Gole. Page 17. New Delhi: Manahor. 1988. (Fig. 1.)

Or

“The Mediterranean Sea.” Map, in The Landmark Thucidides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War, edited by Robert B. Strassler. New York: Free Press, Page 13. (Fig. 1.)

Or

“Ganges Lowland and Nepal.” Map, in Collins International Atlas. Pages124-125. London: Collins. 1983. (Fig. 1.)

If the map used is from an online source,

“Map of Shimla District.” (Fig. 1.) Accessed on 11/12/14: <http://hpshimla.nic.in/sml_maps.htm>

 

6. Citing and Referencing Archives Material

The in-text citation should bear the Document name or title as it is listed in the Archives, followed by the page or the folio number. The referencing should bear all the details of the material.

In-text parenthetical citation style (Smarthvicharam Documents: 64)

Referencing Style:

“Smarthvicharam Documents.” Vol. I. Cochin Regional Archives: Cochin.

 

7. Citing and Referencing Committee Reports

For all in-text parenthetical citation of Committee Reports, the Last name of the chairperson of the Committee is to be used to as the title of the Report.

For instance, if the chairperson of a Committee whose Report is being cited is B.N. Lokur, then for in-text citation, the following format is to be followed;

(Lokur Report: 1965, 10)

However, while referencing the Report in the reference section, all details are to be provided and the following format is to be used;

“Lokur Report.” 1965. The Report of the Advisory Committee on the Lists of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Department of Social Security: India.

<“(Last name of the Chairperson of the Committee) Report.”> <Year of Publication of the Report.> <Complete Title of the Report as it appears on the Report.> <Department/ Institution/ Organization under whose name the Report is Published>: <Place/Country where the report is Produced.>

Note:

If the Report has been accessed online, the date of access and the url to the same must immediately follow the above referencing details.

For Instance:

“Lokur Report.” 1965. The Report of the Advisory Committee on the Lists of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Department of Social Security: India. Accessed on 12/12/14: <http://hlc.tribal.nic.in/WriteReadData/userfiles/file/Lokur%20Committee%...

 

8. Citing and Referencing Interviews taken by the author

It must be made clear in the main body of the text that the interview cited has been taken by the author himself/herself. The in-text parenthetical citation should bear the name of the respondent/interviewee or the code if one was used in place of the name for the sake of anonymity;

The following style is to be followed for in-text parenthetical citation;

(Jung)

Or

(Respondent Code A)

Or

(Respondent Code 12)

The in-text parenthetical citation format is,

<( name of the respondent/interviewee or the code )>

The reference list should list the cited Interview as;

Jung. Interview. 03/07/1974. Transcribed into English from Nepali by Hema Lata. Available at, (provide details of the work if there is one in which the original interview can be sought, or the url to the webpage if it is available online)

Or

Respondent Code 12. Interview: 12/04/1998. Transcribed into English from Nepali by author. Available at, (provide details of the work if there is one in which the original interview can be sought, or the url to the webpage if it is available online.)

< Name of the respondent/interviewee or the code.> <Interview>: <dd/mm/yyyy of the interview>. <Transcribed into English from “the language in which the interview was originally given” by> <Name of the Transcriber>. <Available at,> <Details of the work if there is one, or the url of the webpage if there is one, where the interview can be sought.>

Note:

  • For all other interviews reproduced the interview is to be treated like a book if cited from a book, or like materials from the archive, if it is from an archive.

  • Please also note that it is the responsibility of the author to seek an “Informed Consent” from the respondent before using the material.

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